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Birding the Caribbean



Caribbean Birding—An Overview

The Caribbean is an extensive and varied region. It has several hundred islands in 28 territories arranged in an arc that demarks the boundary of the Caribbean Sea—the islands extend over 3,218km (2,000mi) miles from the The Bahamas and Cuba, in the northwest, to Trinidad and Tobago in the southeast, i.e., from 10°N to 25°N and 60°W to 86°W. It has a wide range of habitats from a 10,000ft mountain, to highlands, lowlands, valleys, karst landscape, cays, islets, rainforests, mangroves, swamps, plantations, grasslands, &c.

The region boasts 752 bird species including a substantial number of migratory birds and 172 endemic species. Particularly, amongst its birds are 39 species of hummingbirds, 14 of which are endemic species—most are found in the Greater Antilles. South American hummingbird species are found in the islands of the southern Caribbean, chiefly Trinidad and Tobago. Three migratory and/or incidental species to the Caribbean islands, the Green-breasted Mango, Ruby-throated Hummingbird, and Rufous Hummingbird, occasion the Greater Antilles.

Birding the Caribbean can be an itinerary and scheduling challenge given the number of destinations, the region's extensiveness, and the variety of bird species. N.B. further complications, not insurmountable, may set in due to the want of timely air-travel schedules, infrastructure, and ground support, and varying trip durations (as little as two days on a small island like St. Lucia, 7-10 days on Trinidad and Tobago, or 10-17 days on a large island like Jamaica or Cuba). Yet, one itinerary possibility is the "Hummingbird Circuit" which involves the least number of islands that gives the opportunity to observe the 39 hummingbird species of the Caribbean, along with other bird species: The Bahamas, Cuba, Dominica, Dominican Republic or Haiti, Jamaica, Puerto Rico, and Trinidad and Tobago. Another is the "Hummingbird Endemics Circuit" which affords the birder the opportunity to observe the 15 endemic hummingbird species of the Caribbean plus two migratory species: The Bahamas, Cuba, Dominica, Dominican Republic or Haiti, Jamaica and Puerto Rico. Yet, another is the "Trinidad and Tobago Circuit" which best showcase a microcosm of the Caribbean's South American hummingbirds, up to 22 species, along with some other continental bird species.


The Bahamas Bird-Watching Spots

Location

The Bahamas Archipelago, comprising the Commonwealth of The Bahamas, is situated in the Western Atlantic at 24° 15′N, 76° 00′W. Its closest island to the United States, Bimini, is 89km (50 miles) east of Miami, Florida; Great Inagua, its southernmost island, lies 55 miles, northeast, off the eastern tip of Cuba. Whilst, Nassau, the capital city located on the island of New Providence, is 290km (180 miles) east-southeast of Miami (see map).

Geography

The Commonwealth has over 700 islands, islets, rocks, and cays. Approximately two scores of them are inhabited; New Providence and Grand Bahama are the most populated islands the other islands—the Out Islands—Abacos, Acklins and Crooked Islands, Andros, the Berry Islands, Bimini, Cat Island, Eleuthera, Harbour Island, the Exumas, Inagua, Long Island, Mayaguana, and San Salvador—are less so. The commonwealth circumscribes more than ‪258,998sq. kilometers (100,000sq. miles) of the ocean from the island of Grand Bahama, in the northwest, to Inagua in the southeast, over 500 miles, and from the island of Andros in the west to San Salvador in the East, over 200 miles. Its land area is in excess of 5,000sq. miles. ‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬

Andros Island is the largest Bahamian island— it is 167 km (104 miles) long by 64 km (40 miles) at its widest. In the main the islands are narrow and low-lying, averaging 10 meters, with rounded hills. Mount Alvernia on Cat Island is the highest elevation at 63 meters (206 feet). Some eastern islands have windblown hill formations; accordingly, both Long Island and Eleuthera have a greater number of hills surpassing 30 meters (100 feet). Except on the northern islands, i.e., Grand Bahama, Great Abaco, New Providence, and Andros, where Caribbean Pine in Pineyards (coniferous forest) can attain great heights, the vegetation is scrub like and thorny. In the interior of some islands, on higher elevations, can be found Blackland Coppice—a secondary forest of tall hardwood trees, e.g., West Indian mahogany, red cedar, etc.—typically surrounded by Caribbean pine forests. Some of the southern islands have short tropical hardwood forests.

Wetlands are pervasive in the territory, often shallow, brackish to saline lagoons, coastal flats, mangrove swamps, and inter-tidal mudflats. The one and only fresh-water river in The Bahamas is on Andros Island, but there are several tidal creeks; Remarkably, the islands of New Providence, San Salvador, and Great Inagua have large lakes.

Climate

The Bahamas has a dry and wet season. The dry season, overlapping the winter months, extends from November to May with little rainfall, less than two inches monthly, and high temperatures of 18 to 25°C (64.4 to 77.0°F). The wet season extends from May to October, overlapping the summer months, with more rainfall averaging above six inches monthly and temperatures ranging from 25 to 31°C (77.0 to 87.8°F) at midsummer. Beware, the Atlantic hurricane season extends from June to November.

Avifauna

The Bahamas has an estimated 375 species of birds; of the estimate 21 have been introduced; six are endemic—among them the Rose-throated Amazon parrot; 205 are rare or accidental; two are extinct; a further two have been extirpated. The stand out of the native species is the national bird the West Indian flamingo. Further, amid the estimate are 8 species of hummingbirds: four existent, native species counting two endemic—the Bahama Woodstar and the Inagua Woodstar— three itinerant and, one extinct species—Brace's Emerald.


Birding in The Islands Of The Bahamas



Birding Spots

In The Bahamas there are 11 islands on the beaten track for bird watching: Abaco, Acklins & Crooked Island, Andros, Eleuthera & Harbour Island, Grand Bahama, Inagua, Mayaguana, New Providence, Ragged Island, San Salvador, and The Exumas. Grand Bahama is a strong favorite with over a half dozen recognized birding spots including Crabbing Bay Nature Trail, Dover Overlook, Garden of the Groves, Lucayan National Park, Rand Nature Center, the trail at Shannon Golf Course, and West End. On Abaco accepted sites include Abaco National Park, Bahama Palm Shores, Little Habour (lighthouse trail), and Marsh Habour Pine Woods. On New Providence and its appendage, Paradise Island, are Clifton Heritage Site, Harold and Wilson Pond, Lakeview Drive Ponds, and The Retreat. There is the West Side National Park on Andros but consider Uncle Charlie's Blue Hole, Blue Holes National Park, North Road, and Owen’s Town amongst other sites. Eleuthera features Edwin's Turtle Lake Marine Reserve, Leon Levy Native Plant Preserve, Ocean Hole, and Princess Cays. The Inagua Woodstar is found on Great Inagua and its Inagua National Park hosts the largest breeding colony of West Indian Flamingos. Nevertheless put thought to South Dam Road, Salt Pond Hill, Two Sisters Ponds, and Airport Road. Newbies to The Bahamas should consider the use of certified eco-tour guides. A search of the Bahamas Ministry of Tourism website for Bird Watching Guides would provide a useful list.

Getting Around

Getting around The Bahamas can be a trial in part due to the wide dispersal of the Bahamian islands and the fact that most destinations are accessed largely through Nassau on New Providence. The expectation of simply visiting the various sites by road transport, although automobiles, buses, and taxi play a part, is unrealistic. For consideration the distance across open seas from Nassau, New Providence to Inagua is 604km (375 miles), to Grand Bahama 198km; Nassau to Marsh Harbour on Abaco is 165km (103 miles); from Inagua to North Andros 628km; etc.

Example Distances Between Bahamas Islands
FromToDistance (Km)
Nassau, New ProvidenceInagua604
Nassau, New Providence Grand Bahama198
Nassau, New Providence Marsh Habour, Abaco165
Great InaguaNorth Andros628

The birder must island hop The Bahamas by aircraft, ferry, yacht, or mail boat. At least one half dozen airlines, including the national airline Bahamas Air, serve various island destinations: Nassau, Freeport, Exuma, Bimini, Abaco, Cat Island, Andros, etc. Fares vary according to the destination, season (month) and day of the week. Travellers should budget up to US $250 for a one-way plane ticket. The Bahamas Ferry Services links Nassau to Eleuthera, Abaco, Andros, and The Exumas. Adult, one-way fares from Nassau to scheduled destinations range from US $110 to $180, extra baggage and vehicles have added costs, and round trips tickets are economical. The cheapest but slowest means of travel amongst the Bahamian islands is by Mail Boat; more than a dozen such vessels operate out of Potter's Cay Dock at Nassau to Grand Bahama and the "Out Islands": one-way, from Nassau to Grand Bahama costs US $45 with a trip duration of 12 hours; Nassau to Eleuthera costs US $30 and last five hours; Nassau to Andros costs US $30 and last 5 hours; expect to while away 37 to 42 hours from Nassau to Inagua.

Mode of Transport Comparative Prices
Transport TypePrice Range (USD)
Aircraft—250
Ferry110–180
Mail Boat30–65


Bahamas Ferries, Meet The Fleet



Access to The Bahamas

US and Canadian residents can access The Bahamas for eight months visa-free. Citizens of the EU, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, the Caribbean Community (CARICOM), and China (PRC) can visit visa-free for up to 3 months. From the major metropolises, there is an ample choice of international airlines with regular schedules to the Bahamas amongst them are British Airways, Delta, United, Virgin Atlantic, American Airlines, Air Canada, WestJet flights, and Caribbean Airlines.

The main airports of entry to are Lynden Pindling International Airport at Nassau, New Providence, Grand Bahama International Airport at Freeport, Grand Bahama, and Marsh Harbour International Airport on Abaco Island. However, there are other airports on other islands that accept scheduled commercial flights. Passenger cruise ships visit the islands and there are dedicated wharves at the Lucayan Harbour Facility in Freeport and Prince George Wharf at Nassau, New Providence, in addition to numerous other ports and marinas. An economical choice, less than US $50, for North Americans is the fast ferry, Pina del Rio, which sails between Ft. Lauderdale, Florida and Freeport, Grand Bahama, daily except Wednesdays, in two and a half hours.


Cuba Hummingbirds—Selected Hotspots

Select Birding Hotspots of Cuba
Birding Spot Location See Map Terrain Vegetation Select Species

Alejandro de Humboldt National Park (AHPN)

Provinces of Holguín and Guantánamo

GPS: 20.444722,-74.769516

Notes: Alejandro de Humboldt National Park is in eastern Cuba.

Mountain

Forest

  • Other Birds
  • Cuban Crow,
  • Cuban Kite,
  • Cuban Parakeet,
  • Cuban Parrot,
  • Giant Kingbird,
  • Gray-fronted Quail-dove,
  • Gundlach's Hawk,
  • Ivory-billed woodpecker,
  • Masked Duck, and
  • Sharp-shinned Hawk.

Bermejas Wildlife Refuge/Refugio de Fauna Bermejas

Parque Nacional Ciénaga de Zapata

GPS: 22.140268,-80.936558

Lowland

Forest

  • Other Birds
  • Cuban Nightjar,
  • Cuban Screech-Owl,
  • Cuban Tody,
  • Quail-Dove species, and
  • Fernandina’s Flicker.

Cayo Coco (Coco Cay)

Jardines del Rey, Ciego de Ávila Province

GPS: 22.509600,-78.407673

Note: Jardines Del Rey (King’s Gardens) is an island chain on the north coast

Low-elevation, sand beaches, tidal flats, and saltwater lagoons,

Mangrove, scrubs, Secondary forest

  • Other Birds
  • Key west Quail-Dove,
  • Oriente Warbler, and
  • Piping Plover.

Cayo Guillermo

Jardines del Rey, Ciego de Ávila Province

GPS: 22.592928,-78.673701

Note: Jardines Del Rey (King’s Gardens) is an island chain on the north coast

Low-elevation, sand beaches, tidal flats, and saltwater lagoons

Mangrove, scrubs, secondary forest

  • Cuban Emerald.
  • Other Birds
  • Bahama Mockingbird.

Cayo Paredon (Paredon Cay)

Jardines del Rey, Ciego de Ávila Province

GPS: 22.451839,-78.17099

Note: Jardines Del Rey (King’s Gardens) is an island chain on the north coast

Low-elevation, sand beaches, tidal flats, and saltwater lagoons

Mangrove, scrubs, low secondary forest

  • Other Birds
  • Cuban Gnatcatcher and
  • Thick-billed Vireo.

Cueva De Los Portales

Pinar del Río Province

GPS: 22.669048,-83.479378

Note: a short distance north of La Guira National Park. A former hideout for 'Che' Guevara

Mountain and lime stone outcrops (mogotes)

Vines are prevalent.

  • Cuban Solitaire and
  • Cave Swallow.

La Boca

Parque Nacional Ciénaga de Zapata

Note: La Boca is south of La Turba.

Recreational land (park) around a lake and pond

  • Other Birds
  • Cuban Crows,
  • Northern Jacana,
  • Purple Gallinules, and
  • Warblers.

La Guira

La Guira National Park, Western Cuba

GPS: 22.702018,-83.362159

Note: (a.k.a. Hacienda Cortina) Until 1959 it was the estate of José Manuel Cortina, a wealthy landowner and politician, who was forced into exile.

Mountain and ponds

Gardens and forested spots of Cuban Pine and broadleaf trees

  • Other Birds
  • Cattle Egret,
  • Cuban Martin,
  • Cuban Solitaire,
  • Cuban Trogon,
  • Cuban Tody,
  • Olive-capped Warbler,
  • Pied-billed Grebe,
  • Snowy Egret, and
  • Turkey Vulture.

Las Salinas wildlife sanctuary (a.k.a La Salinas)

Parque Nacional Ciénaga de Zapata

Note: This site is more than 20km to the south southwest of Playa Larga.

Tidal flats

Mangrove

  • Black Skimmers,
  • Cuban Black-Hawk,
  • Ducks,
  • Herons,
  • Ibises, and
  • Waders.

La Turba

Ciénaga de Zapata Biosphere Reserve

GPS: 22.444,-81.169

Note: This site is at the northern section of the reserve, south of Jaguey Grande, near the reserve's entrance.

Flat with dyke-top and swamps

Forest

  • Other Birds
  • Great Egret Ardea alba,
  • Green Heron,
  • Osprey,
  • Purple Gallinule,
  • Red-shouldered Blackbird,
  • Zapata Wren,
  • Zapata Sparrow, and
  • Zenaida Dove.

Mural de la Prehistoria

Vinales National Park, Western Cuba

GPS: 22.653859,-83.716153

Note:this site is north of Pinar del Rio

Rocky hills (limestone outcrops or mogotes) with flats around them

Garden and forest

  • Warblers (including the endemic yellow-headed warbler) and
  • Yellow-faced Grassquit.

Palpite

Parque Nacional Ciénaga de Zapata

Note: this site is close to Playa Larga within 10 kilometres to the northeast.

Lowlands

Forest

  • Other Birds
  • Cuban Parrot,
  • Cuban Tody,
  • Cuban Trogon,
  • Cuban Vireo,
  • Green Heron,
  • Laughing Gull,
  • Warblers, and
  • Whimbrel.

Parque Nacional Ciénaga de Zapata (a.k.a. Gran Parque Natural Montemar)

Zapata Peninsula, Matanzas, Cuba

GPS: 22.301770,-81.604879

Notes: Parque Nacional Ciénaga de Zapata (Zapata Swamp National Park) is contained within the overlay of the designated preserves of Ciénaga de Zapata Biosphere Reserve, a UNESCO's World Heritage Site, and Ciénaga de Zapata Ramsar Site. It is about 150km (93mi) southeast of Havana.

The park is irregular shaped (est. 1,300km2) with two main protuberance extending westward from Playa Larga into the Ciénaga de Zapata Peninsula.

Playa Larga is a popular staging point for ecotours on the park and wider peninsula and it is the location of the park's headquarters.

Birding locations within the Parque Nacional Ciénaga de Zapata or on its fringes are:

Other birding locations within the greater Ciénaga de Zapata Biosphere Reserve are:

The Parque Nacional Ciénaga de Zapata, size and location, relations to Zapata Swamp, Zapata Peninsula, and its preserves are:

  • Zapata Peninsula—GPS: 22.30,-81.3833
  • Zapata Swamp (4,354.3km2,)—GPS: 22.400,-81.567
  • Ciénaga de Zapata Biosphere Reserve (6,281.72km2)—GPS: 22.03000,-80.33333
  • Zapata Swamp Ramsar Site (4,520km2)—at its core are five protected areas, including the national park—GPS: 22.02 to 22.671388—80.58805 to 82.15833

Lowland (max height 10m above sea level), wetland (rivers, lagoons, swamps, channels and artificial canals)

Semi-deciduous forests, mangroves, flooded savannahs, and grasslands.

  • Other Birds
  • American Kestral,
  • Blue-Winged Teal,
  • Cuban Green Woodpecker,
  • Cuban Pygmy-Owl,
  • Great Blue Heron,
  • La Sagra's Flycatcher,
  • Neotropic Cormorant,
  • Wood Stork,
  • Yellow-Headed Warbler,
  • Zapata Sparrow,
  • Zapata Rail, and
  • Zapata Wren

Rancho La Belén

La Belen Najasa, Sierra de Najasa, Camagüey Province

GPS: 21.377775,-77.922234

Note: Sierra de Najasa is located in the southern part of the municipality of Najasa.

The established locale for bird watching is on the 'Path of Birds' (por el Sendero de las Aves)

Within reach is a fossil forest—the frozen remains of trees from 3 million years ago

Mountain

Deciduous Forest and secondary forest

  • Other Birds
  • Blue Heron,
  • Cuban Palm-Crow,
  • Cuban Parakeet,
  • Cuban Tody,
  • Cuban Bullfinch,
  • Giant Kingbird,
  • Mockingbird,
  • Owls,
  • Parrot,
  • Plain Pigeon,
  • Quail, and
  • White-winged Dove.

Soroa

Artemisa Province

GPS: 22.775845,-83.001761

Note: this site is in western Cuba, 85km west of Havana.

It is part of the Sierra del Rosario Biosphere Reserve.

The Cuban national bird, the Tocororo, can be observed at this site.

Nearby, there is an orchid garden, Orquideario de Soroa, boasting thousands of specimens.

Mountains and ponds

Forests: broadleafed and Cuban Pine

  • Other Birds
  • Blue-headed Quail-Dove,
  • Cattle Egret,
  • Cuban Pygmy-Owl,
  • Cuban Trogon (a.k.a. Tocororo),
  • Great Lizard Cuckoo,
  • Grey Kingbird, and
  • Olive-capped Warbler.

Soplillar

Parque Nacional Ciénaga de Zapata

Note: this site is within ten kilometres east of Playa Larga.

Lowlands

Forest

  • Other Birds
  • Antillean Nighthawk,
  • Blue-head Quail-Dove,
  • Cuban Tody,
  • Cuban Trogon,
  • Cuban Vireo,
  • Great Lizard-Cuckoo,
  • Greater Antillean Nightjar, and
  • Warblers.

Las Terrazas

Sierra del Rosario, Artemisa Province

GPS: 22.845257,-82.944202

Note: this site is located in Western Cuba, 85km west of Havana

Mountain

Secondary Forest

  • Other Birds
  • Blue-headed Quail-Dove,
  • Cuban Green Woodpecker,
  • Cuban Pygmy-Owl,
  • Cuban Tody,
  • Great Antillean Grackle,
  • Olive-capped Warbler,
  • Red-legged, Honeycreeper, and
  • West-Indian Woodpecker

Vinales

Vinales National Park, Western Cuba

GPS: 22.625350,-83.800925

Note: Vinales National Park is an UNESCO World Heritage Site in the far west of Cuba.

Accessible, in the park, is the, six kilometer, five hour, rocky Maravillas de Vinales Trail that leads gradually up into the forest.

A karst landscape that is surrounded by mountains, with the occasional concave limestone outcrop (mogotes), reaching up to 300m.

Forest

  • Other Birds
  • Cuban Grassquit,
  • Cuban Tody,
  • Cuban Trogon,
  • Cuban Bullfinch,
  • Cuban Solitaire,
  • Sharp-shinned Hawk,
  • Smooth-billed Anis, and
  • Warblers.

The most notable trait about birding the island of Cuba, aside from the 25+ endemic bird species, is its huge size—unlike most Caribbean islands. Cuba's land areas is 109,884 km2 (42,426 sq mi)—the Caribbean has over 700 islands in 28 territories, and succeeding Cuba in size are Hispaniola (the Dominican Republic and Haiti) 76,40km2 (29,529 sq mi), Jamaica 10,991km2 (4244 sq mi), and Puerto 9,104 (3515 sq mi). Cuba is 1,250 km (780 mi) long by 191 km (119mi) across its broadest points making distances between birding sites a challenge. In addition, there are numerous satellite islands the largest being the Isla de la Juventud (Isle of Youth) in the southwest, with an area of 2,200 km2 (850 sq mi). Some destinations on the classic birding tour, e.g., Cayo Coco, La Guira, Parque Nacional Ciénaga de Zapata, Rancho La Belén, Najasa, and Vinales are separated by hundreds of miles. The driving distance from Vinales National Park, west of Havana, to Rancho La Belén, Najasa towards the eastern end of the island is 790km (490mi), a nine and one-half hour drive, and the driving distance from Cayo Coco, on the northern coast, to La Guira National Park is 660km (410mi), a seven and a half hour drive. Therefore particular attention must be paid to accommodation, transportation, routes/schedules, and, possibly, tour guides.

Three species of hummingbirds embellish Cuba's bird population. They are the bee hummingbird and the Cuban emerald, both endemic species, and the ruby-throated hummingbird, a migratory species from North America. Due to habitat loss the bee hummingbird's range has become patchy but the Cuban emerald can still be observed throughout Cuba. Observation of the ruby-throated hummingbird is more of a "hit and miss" experience.

A tourist visa card is a requirement for access. However, citizens of a few countries have visa-free access, e.g., some states of the Caribbean islands, some states of the former Yugoslavia and from the former Eastern Bloc, and a few others—in all, less than two dozen. Conventionally, flights to the island originate in Europe, Mexico and Canada. Recently, some flights have become available from the US. Havana, the main entry point, is served by Jose Martí International Airport. Whilst Antonio Maceo Airport at Santiago de Cuba, in the southeast, is another major point of entry.



Viñales Valley, Cuba




Dominica Hummingbirds—Selected Hotspots

Select Birding Hotspots of Dominica
Birding Spot Location See Map Terrain Vegetation Select Species

Botanical Gardens

Bath Road, Roseau

GPS: 15.297106,-61.382938

Notes: a sanctuary for parrots and small animals is on site.

Opening Hours: 6am–7pm

Lowland

Gardens

  • Other Birds
  • Caribbean Elaenia,
  • Caribbean Martin,
  • Imperial Parrot (Sisserou),
  • Red-necked Parrot (Jacko),
  • Lesser Antillean Bullfinch,
  • Lesser Antillean Flycatcher,
  • Lesser Antillian Saltator,
  • Lesser Antillean Swift,
  • Mangrove Cuckoo, and
  • Tropical Mockingbird.

Cabrits National Park

St. John Parish

GPS: 15.583232,-61.473141

Notes: the park is located on the headland just north of Portsmouth in the northwest corner of the island, to the west of Morne Aux Diables, to the north, and Morne Diablotin, to the south.

There are hiking trails and an 18th-century English garrison called Fort Shirley.

Cabrits is the remains of two volcanic craters and was once a separate island.

A mix of hills and wetlands.

A mix of dry tropical forest, mangroves, and grasses.

  • Other Birds
  • American Redstart,
  • Bananaquit,
  • Belted Kingfisher,
  • Black-whiskered Vireo,
  • Carib Grackle,
  • Caribbean Elaenia,
  • Caribbean Martin,
  • Grey Kingbird,
  • Lesser Antillean Bullfinch,
  • Lesser Antillean Pewee,
  • Lesser Antillean Flycatcher
  • Lesser Antillean Swift,
  • Magnificent Frigatebird,
  • Mangrove Cuckoo,
  • Mangrove Warbler,
  • Northern Waterthrush,
  • Plumbeous Warbler,
  • Scaly-breasted Thrasher,
  • Scaly-naped Pigeon,
  • Sora Rail, and
  • Streaked Saltator.

L'ilet

200m off shore from Boetica Village in St. Patrick Parish.

GPS: 15.297387,-61.243720

Notes: The isle is an important breeding site for seabirds. It accessible by boat or swimming.

Morne Trois Pitons National Park is within 5 km from L’Ilet.

Almost 200m2, rocky low-lying islet, reaching to 30m.

Tropical forest

  • Other Birds
  • Black Noddy,
  • Bridled Tern,
  • Brown Booby,
  • Brown Noddy,
  • Lesser Antillean Bullfinch,
  • Magnificent Frigatebird, and
  • White-tailed Tropicbird.

Middleham Trails

Morne Trois Pitons National Park

GPS: 15.347937,-61.328858 (at Waterfall)

Notes: The more frequented trail runs between Laudat and the waterfall, which takes an hour. An alternate route is from Cochrane to the waterfall, which is less steep and courses through more pristine rainforest.

Mountain

Rain Forest

  • Other Birds
  • Bananaquit,
  • Black-faced Grassquit,
  • Broad-winged Hawk,
  • Brown Trembler,
  • Caribbean Elaenia,
  • Gray Kingbird,
  • House Wren,
  • Lesser Antillean Bullfinch,
  • Lesser Antillean Flycatcher,
  • Lesser Antillean Pewee,
  • Lesser Antillean Saltator,
  • Little Blue Heron,
  • Plumbeous Warbler,
  • Ruddy Quail-Dove
  • Scaly-breasted Thrasher,
  • Scaly-naped Pigeon,
  • Smooth-billed Ani, and
  • Spotted Sandpiper (migratory).

Morne Diablotin

Morne Diablotin National Park, St. Andrew Parish

GPS: 15.52380460,-61.42027614 (Syndicate) to 15.500426,-61.399951 (Peak)

Notes: Start the trail at the Syndicate Visitors Centre in the Parish of St. John. The trails finishes in the Parish of St. Andrew although passing through the Parish of St. Peter. Hiking to the mountain's summit takes 2-3 hours, one-way.

Access to the visitor centre is gained via the road to Portsmouth, north form Roseau. Turn east onto the the secondary road just north of the village of Dublanc but before Morne Espagnol. Continue, up, to an elevation above 1,700ft, for 6.8km through banana plantations until the route levels; then, make a left.

Highland/Mountain

Tropical Forest

  • Other Birds
  • Antillean Euphonia,
  • Brown Trembler,
  • Forest Thrush,
  • Imperial Parrot (Sisserou),
  • Lesser Antillean Flycatcher,
  • Lesser Antillean Pewee,
  • Lesser Antillean Saltator,
  • Lesser Antillean Swift,
  • Pearly-eyed Thrasher,
  • Red-necked Parrot (Jacko),
  • Rufous-throated Solitaire, and
  • Scaly-breasted Thrasher.

Morne Macaque (a.k.a. Morne Micotrin)

Parish of St. George

GPS: 15.337253,-61.331491 (Trail Head) 15.333498,-61.333333 (Peak)

Notes: A trail loops around the peak and passes two small lakes of volcanic origin (Freshwater Lake (3.1km from Laudat) and Lake Boeri (4.5km from Laudat).

From Roseau take the roads northeast toward Fond Cani and Laudat (8.11km) and then bird the dirt road around Morne Macaque.

Mountain (trail altitude at and above of 800m).

Montane thicket, cloud forest

Bromeliads, gingers, heliconias and orchids are found around the lakes. Otherwise, mountain palms, ferns, mosses, scrub, and dwarf trees are to be found.

  • Other Birds
  • Antillean Euphonia,
  • Bananaquit,
  • Black-faced Grassquit,
  • Broad-winged Hawk,
  • Caribbean Elaenia,
  • Forest Thrush,
  • Green Heron,
  • House Wren,
  • Lesser Antillean Bullfinch,
  • Rufous-throated Solitaire,
  • Scaly-naped Pigeon,
  • Streaked Saltator, and
  • Zenaida Dove.

Point Des Foux (a.k.a. Pointe Des Foux)

St. Patrick Parish

GPS: 15.2125,-61.329722

Notes: It is a breeding site for six species of seabird.

Located on the Atlantic coast, the site is between Scotts Head and Grand Bay, at the southmost tip of Dominica.

Access is by boat ride originating at Roseau.

Rocky cliffs, rugged terrain

Woodland, shrub

  • Other Birds
  • Antillean Euphonia,
  • Bridled Tern,
  • Brown Booby,
  • Brown Noddy,
  • Caribbean Elaenia,
  • Lesser Antillean Flycatcher,
  • Lesser Antillean Saltator,
  • Magnificent Frigate Bird,
  • Plumbeous Warbler,
  • Scaly-breasted Thrasher, and
  • White-tailed Tropicbird.

Scott’s Head (Cachacrou Peninsula)

St. Mark Parish

GPS: 15.213134,-61.370858

Notes: Scotts Head is located within the Soufriere-Scott’s Head Marine Reserve (SSMR)–it includes the villages of Scott’s Head, Soufriere up to Anse bateau, and the Soufrière Bay, an extinct volcanic crater—which is on the south-western tip of the island of Dominica.

It is a peninsula with a hilly section and lowland spit.

Grove, scrub, grasses

  • Spotted Sandpiper (migratory),
  • Magnificent Frigatebird,
  • Tropical Mockingbird,
  • Barn Swallow, and
  • Caribbean Martin.

Segment-7 (Hatton Garden to First Camp)

Waitukubuli National Trail (WNT), St. Andrew Parish

Notes: Hatten Garden is located approximately 2 miles south of the village of Marigot off the Dr. Nicholas Liverpool Highway.

This WNT segment consists of Congorie Hole as well as Walter Williams Orchard (an area with potential for parrots).

Moderate hike of 12.6 km, duration: 6 hrs.

Mountains (a climb to 381 metres or 1,250ft)

Rain Forest, plantations

  • Other Birds
  • Imperial Parrot (Sisserou) and
  • Red-necked Parrot (Jacko).

Segment-10 (Colihaut Heights to Syndicate)

Waitukubuli National Trail, St. Peter Parish

Notes: Easy hike of 6.4 km, lasting 2-3 hrs.

Mountain

Secondary forest & cultivation

  • Other Birds
  • Bananaquit,
  • Black-throated Blue Warbler (migratory),
  • Broad-winged Hawk,
  • Brown Trembler,
  • Imperial Parrot (Sisserou),
  • Lesser Antillean Bullfinch,
  • Plumbeous Warbler,
  • Red-necked Parrot (Jacko),
  • Rufous-throated Solitaire, and
  • Scaly-naped Pigeon.

Syndicate Nature Trail

Morne Diablotin National Park

GPS: 15.519417,-61.423442

Notes: Access to the visitor centre is gained via the road to Portsmouth, north form Roseau. Turn east onto the the secondary road just north of the village of Dublanc but before Morne Espagnol. Continue, up, to an elevation above 1,700ft, for 6.8km through banana plantations until the route levels; then, make a left.

The trail is a 1.77km (1.1mi) lasso shaped loop that can be completed in 6o minutes, at a casual pace.

Mountain

Tropical Forest

  • Other Birds
  • Bananaquit,
  • Black-throated Blue Warbler (migratory),
  • Broad-winged Hawk,
  • Brown Trembler,
  • Imperial Parrot (Sisserou),
  • Lesser Antillean Bullfinch,
  • Plumbeous Warbler,
  • Red-necked Parrot (Jacko),
  • Rufous-throated Solitaire, and
  • Scaly-naped Pigeon.

Boeri Lake Trek

Morne Trois Pitons National Park

GPS: 15.352231,-61.320882 (Lake)

Notes: The trail has a round trip of 1.71 miles. Trail head is located after Freshwater Lake on the Morne Macaque (a.k.a. Morne Micotrin) trail (see above).

Mountain (trail altitude above 800m)

Montane thicket, cloud forest

Bromeliads, gingers, heliconias and orchids are found around the lakes. Nearby are mountain palms, ferns, mosses, scrub, and dwarf trees.

  • Other Birds
  • Bananaquit,
  • Black-faced Grassquit,
  • Brown Trembler,
  • House Wren,
  • Lesser Antillean Bullfinch,
  • Plumbeous Warbler, and
  • Rufous-throated Solitaire.

Dominica is a small island, just 47km (29mi) by 26km (16mi), of volcanic origin--it is the youngest of the islands of the Lesser Antilles with 7 of the region's 19 volcanoes[1]-- and roughly midway between Martinique and Guadeloupe. Substantially of mountains and highlands, rugged and steep, the terrain rises to 1,447m (4,747ft), at Morne Diablotins--the second highest peak of the Lesser Antilles--a dormant volcano, in less than four short miles. It is popularly recalled that Christopher Columbus described the island as "... completely covered with mountains with nary a flat spot."

Access to Dominica is slightly challenging, resulting from small airports, again, due to the terrain, as there are only indirect flights from international points of origin in Europe and North America. International visitors can gain direct flights to Antigua, Barbados, St. Maarten, Puerto Rico, and Guadeloupe, and then access connecting regional flights, on smaller aircrafts, to Douglas-Charles or Canefield Airport in Dominica.

Nature trails are profuse in Dominica. Those better suited for the bird watcher should be rated easy or medium level of difficulty—on the other hand, the birder would go for every extreme--and the round trip should be three to six hours (a half day). In addition to other spots and trails, two segments of the Waitukubuli National Trail (WNT)--segment seven and ten of 14 segments that course from Scott's head, at the bottom of Dominica, to Capucin Cape, at the top of the island, and then on the Cabrits National Park--are recommended for birding. Segment seven goes from Hatton Garden to First Camp--about six hours--and segment ten goes from Colihaut Heights to Syndicate--about four hours.

Dominica has an estimated 194+ bird species[2], a great part of which are migratory, two bird species are endemic to the island, i.e., the Imperial Parrot (Sisserou) and Red-necked Parrot (Jacko), a further two are endemic to the region--one of which is the blue-headed hummingbird, also found on Martinique--and five species were introduced. The birder should expect hiking terrain and rainy conditions--the island has one of the highest annual rainfall in the world, averaging up to 9,000mm (354in) on exposed mountains and typically surpassing 5,00mm (196in) on the windward coast. The rainiest time of the year is from June through October.

Hikes cross many rivers/streams, with slippery rocks, and streams can experience flash flooding. The birders gear should include a waterproof poncho, camera carrying case and boots. Due to high humidity wear shorts or light pants. A hat or cap may be an asset as well as insect repellant.

Birding this island can be done in less than a week. But with the rain forest, lush vegetation, waterfalls, sulphur springs, breathtaking vistas, and unique island culture there will be excursion creep.

Works Cited

1Volcanoes. Seismic Research Centre. [Online] Seismic Research Centre, 2011. [Cited: October 8, 2016.] http://uwiseismic.com/General.aspx?id=46.
2Avibase - Bird Checklists of the World, Dominica. Avibase - The World Bird Database. [Online] Avibase, Denis Lepage, 2003. [Cited: 10 8, 2016.] http://avibase.bsc-eoc.org/checklist.jsp?lang=EN&p2=1&list=clements&synlang=®ion=DM&version=text&lifelist=&highlight=0.



Morne Trois Pitons National Park (UNESCO/NHK)




Jamaica Hummingbird—Selected Hotspots

Select Birding Hotspots of Jamaica
Birding Spot Location See Map Terrain Vegetation Select Species

Abbey Green

Abbey Green Estate, St. Thomas Parish, Blue Mountains, Eastern Jamaica

GPS: 18.00856,-76.604958

Notes: An operating tropical coffee plantation; The best visiting time is prior to harvesting, March to June, when the beans are ripening.

Access to the estate, via Radnor Road, is a trial. It is a narrow, twisty, and hazardous dirt road, with steep sections. However, the roadside offers further opportunities for birding. Abbey Green is about an hour's drive from Forres Park Nature Resort and Spa. Arrangements to visit Abbey Green can be made at the Spa.

Mountain, 1,524 meters above sea level

Tropical Forest, Coffee Plantation

  • Other Birds
  • Arrow-headed Warbler
  • Chestnut-bellied Cuckoo
  • Crested Quail Dove
  • Grey Kingbird
  • Jamaican Blackbird (Wild Pine Sergeant)
  • Ring-tailed Pigeon
  • Rufous-throated Solitaire
  • White-collared Swift
  • White-eyed Thrush

Ecclesdown Road

John Crow Mountains, Portland Parish, Northeast Jamaica

GPS: 18.04462,-76.31488

Notes: Ecclesdown Road twist through the foothills of John Crow Mountains. Birders should expect sudden showers, marauding insects, the absence of hospitality facilities and uncertain footing in humid conditions.

Three to six hours in the morning is the best birding time.

There are no hospitality facilities. Hotel Mocking Bird Hill, 30km away, is accessible by car from this location.

Hilly

Tropical Forest

  • Other Birds
  • Arrow-headed Warbler
  • Bananaquit
  • Black-billed Parrot
  • Crested Quail-dove
  • Jamaican Blackbird
  • Jamaican Crow
  • Jamaican Spindalis
  • Jamaican Tody
  • Orangequit
  • Quail-dove
  • Turkey Vulture
  • White-chinned Thrush
  • White-eyed Thrush
  • Yellow-billed Parrot

Hardwar Gap

Blue and John Crow Mountains National Park, St. Andrew Parish.

GPS: 18.08333,-76.71666

Notes: Difficult driving conditions due to landslips, potholes, deep ruts, steep inclines make access to the best birding spots demanding.

The south side of the gap can be reached from Kingston in an hour. First head for Papine from their take Gordon Town Road (for a mile and a half) to New Castle Road then follow New Castle Road to New Castle, from there proceed another half mile.

Do not expect hospitality facilities.

The best birding is in the morning in the foliage along the road; venturing off the road is dangerous.

Mountain, 1,524 meters above sea level

Tropical Forest

  • Other Birds
  • Crested Quail-dove
  • American Kestrel
  • Arrow-headed Warbler
  • Black-whiskered Vireo
  • Blue Mountain Vireo
  • Chestnut-bellied Cuckoo
  • Greater Antillean Bullfinch
  • Jamaican Elaenia
  • Jamaican Lizard Cuckoo
  • Jamaican Pewee
  • Jamaican Woodpecker
  • White-chinned Thrush

Hope Gardens

Hope Botanic Gardens, Kingston

GPS: 18.02269,-76.74924

Note: The best birding time is early in the morning as birds are more active then and there is less chance of disruption by crowds and social events. The recommended birding duration for the site is 2-3 hours.

Hours: Mondays–Sundays: 5.30am to 6.00pm (October–February)

Hours: Mondays-Sundays: 5.30am to 6.3opm (March–September)

National Labour Day: Closed
National Heroes's Day: Closed

Tel: 927-1257

Gentle slope on 60 acres at the foot of the Blue Mountains

Meadows and Cultivated Flower Gardens

  • Other Birds
  • A variety of doves
  • Black-billed Parrots
  • Cattle Egret
  • Smooth-billed Anis
  • Tricolored Heron
  • Yellow-billed Parrot

Hotel Mocking Bird Hill

Port Antonio, Portland Parish

GPS: 18.167617, -76.412820

Notes: Ecclesdown Road, the birding hotspot 30km away, is accessible from this location via the A4.

Hotel staff can arrange birding tours and drivers upon request.

Mountain, Steep trails on 6.5 acres

Tropical Forest

  • Other Birds
  • Bananaquit
  • Black-billed Parrot
  • Chestnut-bellied Cuckoo
  • Common Ground-Dove
  • Jamaican Euphonia
  • Jamaican Lizard-Cuckoo
  • Jamaican Oriole
  • Jamaican Tody
  • Jamaican Woodpecker
  • Orangequit
  • Ring-tailed Pigeon
  • Rufous-tailed Flycatcher
  • Sad Flycatcher
  • several Warbler species
  • Jamaican Spindalis
  • White-chinned Thrush

Marshall's Pen

Mandeville, Manchester Parish

GPS: 18.0596,-77.53143

Notes: A cattle ranch and private nature reserve in Central Jamaica that is near Mandeville.

The forest and pasture are linked by a complex of trails.

Visits by the public, in groups of six to ten, are allowed only by appointment.

Hilly

Tropical Forest, Open Pasture, & Gardens

  • Other Birds
  • American Kestrel
  • American Redstart
  • Arrow-headed
  • Bananaquit
  • Black-and-white
  • Black-throated Blue
  • Greater Antillean Bullfinch
  • Caribbean Dove
  • Cave Swallow
  • Common Ground-dove
  • Crested Quail-dove
  • Green Heron
  • Jamaican Crow
  • Jamaican Euphonia
  • Jamaican Lizard-cuckoo
  • Jamaican Oriole
  • Jamaican Owl
  • Jamaican Parakeet
  • Jamaican Spindalis
  • Jamaican Tody
  • Jamaican Woodpecker
  • Loggerhead Kingbird
  • Mangrove Cuckoo
  • Northern Mockingbird
  • Northern Parula
  • Northern Potoo
  • Orangequit
  • Ovenbird
  • Red-tailed Hawk
  • Ruddy Quail-dove
  • Sad Flycatcher
  • Sapsucker
  • Smooth-billed Anis
  • White-chinned Thrush
  • White-crowned Pigeon
  • White-eyed (heard) Thrush
  • White-winged Dove
  • Worm-eating Warbler
  • Yellow-bellied
  • Zenaida Dove

Mystic Mountain

Mystic Mountain, Ocho Rios

GPS: 18.41413,-77.12597

Notes: Mystic Mountain overlooks Ocho Rios Cruise Ship Terminal, which is only 5 minutes away; Dunn's River Falls is also close by.

Other attractions at this site include a butterfly garden, mountain and seascape views, hiking, cycling, Sky Explorer, a chairlift that soars above the mountain treetops on ascent but weaves through the canopy on the descent; Rainforest Bobsled Jamaica, a 1000 meter sledge through a tropical forest; and Zip-Line that jets the rider, attached by a body harness to overhead cables, through the forest canopy.

Tel: 974-3990

High hill, 213 meters (700 feet)

Tropical Forest, Cultivated Gardens

Rocklands Bird Sanctuary (a.k.a. Rockland's Feeding Station)

Rockland's Bird Sanctuary Anchovy, Montego Bay, St. James

GPS: 18.42613,-77.94132

Directions: Follow the main road (A1) west from Montego Bay (towards Negril), after passing the town of Reading, 3 miles out, take the Long Hill Road (B8) south that passes through Long Hill Gorge. After a mile the signs to the sanctuary will be visible.

Posted hours of operation: 2-5 pm.

Tel: 952-2009

Hill

Tropical Forest, Cultivated Gardens

  • Other Birds
  • American Redstart Warbler
  • Bananaquit
  • Black-faced Grassquit
  • Black-throated Blue Warbler
  • Caribbean Dove
  • Common ground-Dove
  • Greater Antillean Bullfinch
  • Jamaican Becard
  • Jamaican Euphonia
  • Jamaican Oriole
  • Jamaican Tody
  • Jamaican Vireo
  • Jamaican Woodpecker
  • Loggerhead Kingbird
  • Northern Parula Warbler
  • Orangequit
  • Rufous-tailed Flycatcher
  • Sad Flycatcher
  • White-chinned Thrush
  • Yellow-faced Grassquit

Windsor Great House and Windsor Research Centre

Cockpit Country, Trelawny

GPS: 18.3564,-77.64693

Tel: 997-3832

Email: [email protected]

Rugged, hilly, limestone bluffs, hollows, and salt ponds

Tropical Forest

  • Other Birds
  • American Redstart
  • Black-bellied Plover
  • Black-billed Parrot
  • Black-crowned Night-Heron
  • Black-throated Blue
  • Black-whiskered Vireo
  • Chestnut-bellied Cuckoo
  • Common Ground Dove
  • Great Egret
  • Greater Yellowlegs
  • Grey Kingbird
  • Jamaican Becard
  • Jamaican Crow
  • Jamaican Owl
  • Jamaican Stripe-headed Tanager
  • Jamaican Vireo
  • Jamaican Woodpecker
  • Least Sandpipers
  • Little blue Night Heron
  • Loggerhead Kingbird
  • Magnificent Frigatebird
  • Mourning Dove
  • Northern Mockingbird
  • Northern Parula
  • Olive-throated Parakeet
  • Orangequit
  • Ovenbird
  • Potoo
  • Prairie Warbler
  • Reddish Egret
  • Rufous-tailed Flycatcher
  • Sad Flycatcher
  • Smooth-billed Anis
  • Snowy Egret
  • Turkey Vulture
  • Western Sandpipers Willet
  • White-crowned Pigeon
  • White-eyed Thrush
  • White-winged Dove
  • Yellow-billed Parrot
  • Zenaida Dove

Jamaica is the third largest island in the Caribbean measuring 235km (146mi) by 84km (52mi) at its extremes; many cays to its south add to its size. The island, situated 190km (118mi) to the west of Haiti and 140km (90mi) south of Cuba, is remarkably mountainous and largely made up of highland, as more than half of the island is above 300 metres. Beware, birding Jamaica involves hiking as most recognized birding sites are on inclines, highlands or mountains, e.g., Abbey Green, Hardwar Gap, Hotel Mocking Bird Hill, and Rocklands Bird Sanctuary.

Nevertheless, the island offers 324 bird species, amongst which a substantial proportion are migratory, 15 were introduced, and 28 are endemic-- three of which are hummingbirds, the Jamaican mango, red-billed streamertail and black-billed streamertail. In addition to the endemic hummingbird species, there is a potential three other species of hummingbirds: the vervain hummingbird, the ruby-throated hummingbird, a migratory visitor, and the bee hummingbird, an incidental visitor from Cuba.

There are various visa requirements for access to Jamaica ranging from none for citizens of the US, Canada, and the Commonwealth, with some exceptions, to visa requirements for citizens of other countries. Visitors may be required, at a minimum, to produce a valid passport, ID, or birth certificate. There are international flights from North America and Europe to the Norman Manley International Airport in Kingston and the Donald Sangster International Airport at Montego Bay.



The Birds of Jamaica




Puerto Rico Hummingbirds—Selected Hotspots

Select Birding Hotspots of Puerto Rico
Birding Spot Location See Map Terrain Vegetation Select Species

Cabo Rojo, National Wildlife Refuge

Cabo Rojo, Road 301 (km 5.1)

P.O. Box 510
Boquerón, Puerto Rico 00622

GPS: 17.976068,-67.168343

Directions: south on Interstate 1, PR-1, (from San Juan) towards to PR-2 at Ponce (114.39km); west on Interstate 2, PR-2, until Rt. 116, exit left onto Rt. 116; then on towards Rt. 303; left on 303, follow until Rt. 301, left on 301 toward Cabo Rojo.

Nearby: Laguna Cartegena National Wildlife Refuge

Notes: Cabo Rojo Wildlife Refuge was established in 1974 on 587 acres of lands obtained from the Central Intelligence Agency. The Cabo Rojo Salt Flats was added to the refuge after it was purchased by the National Wildlife System in 1999. The refuge now encompasses 1,856 acres (7.43 km2).

Due to intensive agriculture and cattle farming the native vegetation has been substantially replaced by non-native species.

Over 118 bird species have been observed in and around the Cabo Rojo refuge. In fact it is an important stopover for many species of migratory birds from North America to South America and from South America to North America.

Administered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, the visitor centre has instructive exhibits and a short film about Puerto Rico's flora and fauna. The service recommends that hikers use sun screen, carry bottle water, don hats, and wear appropriate footwear.

Hours: Cabo Rojo NWR Visitor Center and Trails:
Monday–Saturday 9am–4pm
(closed on Sundays and Federal holidays)
Trails: Monday–Friday 7am–5pm
Saturday 9am–4pm

Hours: Cabo Rojo Salt Flats Interpretive Center and Trails/Bike Trail:
Thursday to Friday, 8:30am–4pm Trails: Daylight use only.

Tel: 787-851-7258

Email: [email protected]

Website: https://www.fws.gov/refuge/Cabo_Rojo/

Social Media: http://www.facebook.com/caborojonwr

Rolling Hills,
Flats, and
Swamps

Dry Forest and Mangrove

  • Antillean Mango, and
  • Puerto Rican Emerald.
  • Other Birds
  • Adelaide's Warbler,
  • American Kestrel,
  • Bananaquit,
  • Black-bellied Plover,
  • Black-necked Stilt,
  • Gray Kingbird,
  • Great blue heron,
  • Greater Yellowlegs,
  • Killdeer,
  • Lesser Yellowlegs,
  • Puerto Rican Tody,
  • Puerto Rican Woodpecker,
  • Ruddy Turnstone,
  • Semipalmated Plover,
  • Smooth-billed Ani,
  • Snowy Egrets,
  • Spotted Sandpiper,
  • Stilt Sandpiper,
  • Troupial,
  • White-cheeked Pintails,
  • Wilson's Plover,
  • Yellow "Mangrove" Warbler, and
  • Yellow-shouldered Blackbird

4½hours from New York City and 7¾ hours from Madrid, by air, Puerto Rico is located at the eastern end of the Greater Antilles, which comprises the northern edge of the Caribbean archipelago. It is 120km (75 miles) east of Hispaniola and 1.632km (1,014 miles) southwest of Miami. Its coordinates are 18°15´N 66°30´W.

Puerto Rico consist of a group of islands, the main island of Puerto Rico, plus, Mona, Culebra, and Vieques, as well as a number of islets. Collectively the land area approximates 8,870km2 (3,420 sq. mi). The main island's longest east-west extent is 180km (110 miles) whilst its widest north-south extent is 65km (40 mile). Largely mountainous, it is dominated by The Central Range (La Cordillera Central), which is the location of the island's highest peak, Cerro Punta 1,388 meters (4,390ft). The range's spine runs east to west and splits the island into northern and southern sections.

Puerto Rico's forests are tropical moist broadleaf forest (broadleaf lowland equatorial evergreen rainforests, tropical seasonal forest, and montane rainforests) and tropical dry forest. Lowland forest are pervasive in coastal areas. Trees heights can reach 24m (79ft). Sierra de Luquillo, in the northeast corner of the island, and the taller peaks of the Cordillera Central are covered with montane forests. Trees in this zone can reach 34m (112ft). Dry forest are found along the southwest coast, in the shadow of the Cordillera Central, at Fajardo, at the northeastern corner of the main island, and on offshore islands.

There are many locations favorable to bird watching in Puerto Rico, including some off-shore islands. Caribbean National Forest (El Yunque), Guánica State Forest, Humacao Wildlife Refuge, La Parguera, Parador Hacienda Juanita, Maricao State Forest, and Cabo Rojo are sites on the mainland. Whilst Vieques National Wildlife Refuge, Desecheo National Wildlife Refuge, and Culebra National Wildlife Refuge are off-shore sites. Cabo Rojo National Wildlife Refuge, Culebra National Wildlife Refuge, Desecheo National Wildlife Refuge, Laguna Cartagena National Wildlife Refuge, and Vieques National Wildlife Refuge are constituent sanctuaries of the Caribbean Islands National Wildlife complex, an administrative unit of the United States Fish and Wildlife Service which oversees National Wildlife Refuges in the US Caribbean territories. Sites are accessible by a networks of Interstate highways, primary roads, urban primary roads, secondary (or inter-municipal) roads, and tertiary (or intra-municipal) roads, and by ferry to the offshore islands, for instance Vieques Island and Culebra Island are accessible by ferry from ports at San Juan and Fajardo.

380 bird species[1] have been detected on Puerto Rico more than any other island of the Greater Antilles even accounting for introduced species. 42 species have been introduced to Puerto Rico—amongst them are Psittaciformes, i.e., parrots and parakeets—whilst 16 speices are endemic. More hummingbird species, 9, have been detected on Puerto Rico than any other island of the Greater Antilles or Lesser Antilles, excluding the island of Trinidad: two of them are endemic—the green mango and the Puerto Rican Emerald. 199 bird species are rare/accidental to Puerto Rico counting 4 hummingbird species—the green-breasted mango, purple-throated Carib, ruby-throated hummingbird, and vervain hummingbird.

US residents can gain access to and from Puerto Rico without a visa. Non-US citizens resident in the US must take guidance from the Visa Waiver Program. Travelers whose trip originate outside the US must meet US entry requirements. Many international airlines serve Puerto Rico's main airport Luis Muñoz Marín International Airport near San Juan. Some other airlines serve smaller airports at Rafael Hernandez International Airport and Mercedita International Airport at the cities of Aguadilla and Ponce, respectively.

Works Cited

1 LEPAGE, Denis. Avibase - Bird Checklists of the World, Puerto Rico. Avibase - The World Bird Database. [Online] Avibase, Denis Lepage, 2003. http://avibase.bsc-eoc.org/checklist.jsp?lang=EN&p2=1&list=clements&synlang=®ion=DM&version=text&lifelist=&highlight=0.


Tobago Hummingbirds—Selected Hotspots

Select Birding Hotspots of Tobago (see map)
Birding Spot Location See Map Terrain Vegetation Select Species

Adventure Farm

Arnos Vale Road, Plymouth

GPS: 11.22142,-60.76469

Adventure Farm, situated near Plymouth, on Tobago's northwest coast, is a nature reserve and orchard on 12 acres. The site is renowned for birds, butterflies, citrus and mangoes.

Hours: Monday-Friday: 7am to 5.45pm

Hilly

Rainforest

  • Black-throated Mango,
  • Copper-rumped Hummingbird,
  • Ruby-topaz Hummingbird,
  • Rufous Breasted Hermit, and
  • White Necked Jacobin.
  • Other Birds
  • Bananaquits
  • Barred Antshrike
  • Cocoa Woodcreeper
  • Red-crowned Woodpecker,
  • Trinidad (Blue-crowned) Motmot, and
  • White-lined Tanager.

Bon Accord Ponds/Lagoon
(Ramsar Site)

North of Milford Rd, Bon Accord, St. Patrick

GPS: 11.16166, -60.82308

Notes: On the eastern side, adjacent to the mangrove forest, there is a freshwater marsh.

Wetland

Mangrove

  • Ruby-topaz Hummingbird
  • Other Birds
  • Black-bellied Whistling Duck,
  • Blue-winged Teal,
  • Brown-crested Flycatcher,
  • Caribbean Martin,
  • Cocoa Woodcreeper,
  • Great Blue Heron,
  • Greater Yellowlegs,
  • Green Heron,
  • Grey Kingbird,
  • Least Grebes,
  • Little Blue Heron,
  • Little Egret,
  • Moorhens,
  • Purple Gallinule,
  • Ring-necked Duck,
  • Snowy Egret,
  • Solitary Sandpiper,
  • Spotted Sandpiper,
  • Whimbrel,
  • White-cheeked Pintail,
  • White-fringed Antwren, and
  • Yellow-bellied Elaenia.

Cuffie River Nature Retreat

Runnemede valley, Main Ridge

GPS: 11.245390,-60.698540

Directions: from Scarborough: head north on Bacolet Extention Rd toward Sargeant Cain Rd (550 m), follow Northside Rd (10.9 km), then (2.6 km)

Notes: Cuffie River Nature Retreat is an eco-lodge, with accessible nature trails, at the edge of Tobago's Main Ridge Forest Reserve.

Hilly

Rainforest

  • Black-throated Mango,
  • Copper-rumped Hummingbird,
  • Ruby-topaz Hummingbird,
  • Rufous-breasted Hermit
  • White-necked Jacobin, and
  • White-tailed Sabrewing.
  • Other Birds
  • Blue-headed Parrot,
  • Blue-backed Manakin,
  • Collared Trogon,
  • Common Potoo,
  • Gray-rumped Swift,
  • Gray-throated Leaftosser,
  • Green-rumped Parrotlet,
  • Olivaceous Woodcreeper,
  • Orange-winged Parrot,
  • Striped Owl,
  • Trinidad (Blue-crowned) Motmot,
  • White-fringed Antwren,
  • White-tailed Nightjar,
  • Yellow-bellied Elaenia,
  • Yellow-breasted Flycatcher, and
  • Yellow-legged Thrush.

Gilpin Trace (a.k.a. Gilpin Trail)

Main Ridge Forest Reserve, off Roxborough to Parlatuvier Road

Notes: The trail head begins at the 35.5km marker on the Roxborough to Parlatuvier Road.

Gilpin Trace is a circuit of 7.6km (4.7mi) that winds through a tropical forest. At the trailhead there is a lookout of the Forestry Division—limited parking is possible there. The trail descends sharply at first proceeding to the north northeast, despite minor diversions. Where the trail's main direction turns to the east south east it incorporates part of the abandoned Roxborough-Bloody Bay Old Road—running roughly west-northwest to east southeast. It rejoins and continues along the Roxborough to Parlatuvier Road—there is cabin of the Forestry Division at this point—heading west southwest until the lookout of the Forestry Division.

In the rainy season—June to December—this trail is very muddy.

Mountain

Rainforest

  • Other Birds
  • Blue-backed Manakins,
  • Broad-winged Hawk,
  • Cocoa Woodcreeper,
  • Cocrico (Rufous-vented Chachalaca),
  • Common Black Hawk,
  • Golden-olive Woodpecker,
  • Gray-rumped Swift,
  • Great Black-Hawk,
  • Ochre-bellied Flycatcher,
  • Plain Antvireo,
  • Rufous-tailed Jacamars,
  • Stripe-breasted Spinetail,
  • Trinidad (Blue-crowned) Motmot,
  • White-necked Thrush,
  • White-winged Becard, and
  • Yellow-legged Thrush.

Grafton Caledonian Bird Sanctuary
(a.k.a. Grafton Caledonia Wildlife Sanctuary)

Grafton Road, Stonehaven Bay

GPS: 11.19886,-60.78589

Notes: Until 1963 the site was a cocoa and coconut estate.

Hilly

Rainforest

  • Other Birds
  • Bananaquits,
  • Bare-eyed Robins,
  • Blue-backed Manakin,
  • Trinidad (Blue-crowned) Motmot,
  • Blue-gray Tanager,
  • Cocrico (Rufous-vented Chachalaca),
  • Fuscous Flycatcher,
  • Olivaceous Woodcreeper,
  • Red-crowned Woodpecker,
  • Ruddy Ground-Doves, and
  • White-fringed Antwren.

Little Tobago
(a.k.a. Bird of Paradise Island)

North East Tobago

GPS: 11.299815,-60.504606

Notes: Little Tobago is an uninhabited island that is a seabird refuge. In 1909 the greater bird of paradise, from New Guinea, was introduced. But, in 1963 the island was hit by Hurricane Flora and it is presumed that none of the birds of paradise survived.

The island is 3.01km east, across Tyrell's Bay, from Speyside. It is accessible from a marina at Speyside—a 15 minute boat trip. There is a berth on the western side, a visitor centre near the jetty and four observation posts at highpoints.

Over one-square kilometre, it stands 37 metres (121 ft.) at its highest point; and, lengthwise, the island stretches from the northwest to the southeast. It is bisected by bilateral prominences one to the northeast and the other to the southwest, off centre to the northwest—the jetty is at the corner in the northwest quadrant.

There are over 14km (8.7mi) of trails. They reach all the extremities of the islands. The trek from the jetty to the visitor centre is less than ten minutes uphill. From the jetty the furthest point is to the south east, nearly 1.5km.

Hilly island

Dry Forest

  • Audubon's Shearwater,
  • Blue-gray Tanager,
  • Broad-winged Hawk,
  • Brown Booby,
  • Brown Noddy (Tern),
  • Brown-crested Flycatcher,
  • Crested Oropendola,
  • Laughing Gull,
  • Magnificent Frigatebird,
  • Peregrine Falcon,
  • Red-billed Tropicbird,
  • Red-footed Booby,
  • Sooty Tern,
  • Tropical Mockingbird,
  • White-tailed Nightjar, and
  • Yellow-bellied Elaenia.

Niplig Trail

Main Ridge Forest Reserve, off Roxborough to Parlatuvier Road

Note: Niplig—Giplin spelt backwards—was established by the Forestry Division around 1985/1986. The trail, on the south side of the Roxborough to Parlatuvier Road, is roughly opposite Gilpin Trace. The trail head begins at the 34.2km mark, further along the road from the Forestry's cabin, i.e., approximately 400m from where Gilpin Trace rejoins the road.

The trail, a circuit of 4.8km (2.98mi), incorporates part of the Roxborough to Parlatuvier Road on its last leg. But, generally, it courses through a part of the Tobago Main Ridge Forest Reserve, the oldest officially designated as such in the Western Hemisphere, which was established in 1776[1]. At the beginning, secondary forest encompasses the trail but this soon turns to woodland. It rejoins Roxborough to Parlatuvier Road just shy of the Forestry Division's lookout, further west. A great part is steep and often muddy and mosquitoes also abound in this environment—the trail is considered to be very challenging.

Parking is possible at the cabin belonging to the Forestry Division.

Mountain (450m)

Forest

  • Other Birds
  • Barred Antshrike,
  • Blue Backed Manakins,
  • Golden-olive Woodpecker,
  • Plain Antvireo,
  • Plain-brown Woodcreeper,
  • Red-legged Honeycreeper,
  • Venezuelan Flycatcher,
  • White-necked Thrush, and
  • Yellow-legged Thrush.

Tobago is one of the two main islands of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago. Situated at 11° 9' N, latitude, and 60° 40' W, it is 30km (19mi) to the northeast of Trinidad. A cigar-shaped island it is 298 sq. km. (115 sq. mi) or 41km (25.5mi) by 12km (7.5mi). Its highest point, on the Main Ridge, is 600 metres. The Main Ridge is of volcanic origin and runs from the northeast to the southwest. Southwest Tobago is flat lowlands made up of coralline limestone.

Ecosystems of interest to a birder that can be found on the island include lagoons, mangrove swamps, marshes, gardens, scrubland, broadleaf forests, dry forest, lowlands, highlands, and mountains.

Access to Tobago can be accomplished by direct flights from Europe or indirectly from Trinidad and other Caribbean islands. Additionally, an interisland ferry service, with multiple daily sailings, connects the islands of Trinidad and Tobago. There is one visa requirement for both islands of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago.

There are 279 bird species attributed to the island of Tobago, two of which were introduced—the carib grackle and the green-rumped parrotlet. Evidence of the greater bird of paradise, introduced on the islet of Little Tobago in 1909, have been lost since 1963. A further five species are considered extirpated or presumed so. The island's eight hummingbird species are, substantially, a subset of those found on Trinidad.

The rufous-breasted hermit, black-throated mango, ruby-topaz hummingbird, copper-rumped hummingbird, white-necked jacobin, and blue-chinned sapphire are also native to Trinidad. The white-tailed sabrewing is also found in northeastern Venezuela whilst the green-throated carib is an itinerant visitor from further north in the Lesser Antilles. Hummingbirds can be found in all the habitats on the islands. Of note is the white-tailed sabrewing predilection for the forests surrounding Gilpin and Niplig trails.

1UNESCO. Tobago Main Ridge Forest Reserve. UNESCO. [Online] UNESCO, August 17, 2011. [Cited: October 22, 2016.] http://whc.unesco.org/en/tentativelists/5646.



Regenwald Tobago - Rainforest Main Ridge




Trinidad Hummingbirds—Selected Hotspots

Select Birding Hotspots of Trinidad
Birding Spot Location See Map Terrain Vegetation Select Species

Asa Wright Nature Center and Lodge

Northern Range, Arima

GPS: 10.71783, -61.29833

Directions: east on the Churchill Roosevelt H'way (from Uriah Butler H'way intersection) towards the town of Arima and Wallerfield (20.8km); turn north on Demerrara Rd (the first road on the left after Santa Rosa Heights, residential community); proceed north on Demerrara Rd (2.9km) to the Eastern Main Rd; cross the Eastern Main Rd directly to Arima Bypass Rd; continue on Arima Bypass Rd (3.1km) to Blanchisseuse Rd; follow Blanchisseuse Rd to the 7¾ mile mark (12.47km up the mountain); turn left onto ASA Wright Nature Centre driveway ("ASA Wright Nature Centre" sign indicates the driveway); follow the driveway to facility for ½ mile (.8km).

Notes: Located on the former Spring Hill Estate, at an altitude of 366 metres (1,200ft), this site is on 607 hectares (1,500 acres) of protected forest. It has an observation deck and several trails totaling 3km.

Tel: 667-4655

Email: [email protected]

Mountain, 360 Meters above sea level

Rainforest

  • Amethyst Woodstar,
  • Black-throated Mango,
  • Blue-chinned Sapphire,
  • Blue-tailed Emerald,
  • Brown Violet-ear,
  • Copper-rumped Hummingbird,
  • Green Hermit,
  • Little Hermit,
  • Long-billed Starthroat,
  • Ruby-topaz Hummingbird,
  • Rufous-breasted Hermit,
  • Rufous-shafted Woodstar,
  • Tufted Coquette,
  • White-chested Emerald. and
  • White-necked Jacobin.

Caroni Wildlife Reserve
(a.k.a. Caroni Swamp)
(Ramsar Site)

Caroni

GPS: 10.604895,-61.434091

Directions: from Churchill Roosevelt H'way proceed south on Uriah Butler H'way (1.8km), exit at the Caroni Flyover; continue for 220m, bear right at junction; proceed 58m south, bear right onto Caroni Flyover, continue 280m; turn south, continue south for (160m) then west for 1.13km to the centre.

From Chaguanas proceed north on Uriah Butler Highway (4.42km), exit at Caroni Flyover (200m); make abrupt south turn and continue south (160m) then west for 1.13km.

Notes: A 1.25 square-mile wildlife reserve situated within the 32 square-mile (8,398ha) Caroni Swamp, a brackish mangrove swamp.

Several types of boat tours are possible including:

  • Late afternoon tour (from 4pm): to witness returning birds, e.g., herons, egrets and Scarlet Ibis, to their roosts.
  • Photography tour: aims to discover scarlet ibises feeding in their feeding ground and their flight in flocks.
  • General bird watching tour: a wider variety of birds are sought, including hummingbirds, passerines and various water birds.

Boat tours are in open-air, shallow-bottom pirogues—tour duration usually exceeds three hours.

Tel: 469-4076

Email: [email protected]

Swamp

Mangrove

  • Other Birds
  • Bicolored Conebill,
  • Cattle Egret,
  • Common Potoo,
  • Glossy Ibis,
  • Little Blue Heron,
  • Neotropic Cormorant,
  • Scarlet Ibis,
  • Snowy Egret,
  • Spotted Sandpiper,
  • Striated Heron, and
  • Straight-billed Woodcreeper.

Chaguaramas National Heritage Park

North Western Peninsula

GPS: 10.686917,-61.617119

Notes: favoured birding spots are Mount Katherine, Edith Falls, Tucker Valley Road, and the Bamboo Cathedral.

Tel: 634-4312, 634-2424

Email: [email protected]

Mountain, Valley & Off Shore Islands

Rainforest,
Plantations,
Mangrove, &
Scrubland

  • Black Throated Mango,
  • Copper Rumped Hummingbird,
  • Green Hermit,
  • Little Hermit,
  • Rufous Breasted Hermit,
  • Tufted Coquette, and
  • White-Chested Emerald.
  • Other Birds
  • Broad-winged Hawk,
  • Common Black Hawk,
  • Magnificent Frigatebird,
  • Osprey,
  • Pearl Kite,
  • Plumbeous Kite,
  • Purple Honeycreeper,
  • Short-tailed Hawk,
  • Trinidad Mot-Mot,
  • White Hawk, and
  • Zone-tailed Hawk.

Emperor Valley Zoo

Royal Botanic Gardens, St. Clair, Port of Spain

GPS: 10.674971,-61.516662

Notes: The zoo’s hummingbird garden has been discontinued. An open-air exhibit, it was roughly 14 by 22 metres. The garden was the focal point of the zoo's greater green zone; it was located at the southernmost extreme of the compound where an exhibit of flamingos is now situated. This locale, still, is an area likely to attract hummingbirds as it remains an open space—without cages—intersperse with plants and trees, retaining a garden-like ambiance.

Tel: 622-3530, 622-7808

Email: [email protected]

Bottom of a foothill of the Northern Range

Gardens with Secondary Forest nearby

At least 5 species
  • Black-throated Mango,
  • Copper-rumped Hummingbird,
  • Green Hermit,
  • Little Hermit,
  • Ruby-topaz Hummingbird, and
  • White-chested Emerald
  • Other Local Birds
  • American White Ibis,
  • Cocrico,
  • Pink Flamingo,
  • Purple honeycreeper,
  • Scarlet Ibis,
  • Short-tailed hawk,
  • Turquoise Tanager, and
  • White hawk.

Mount St. Benedict—Bird Watchers Circuit

Northern Range, St. Augustine

GPS: 10.662753,-61.395198

Directions: from the Eastern Main Road, in St. Augustine, travel north on St. John's road until the private road (1.88km), on the left, to Mount St. Benedict. Continue on the private road, climbing the mountain, passing a vocational school and playing field on the left. After two switchbacks and avoiding any right turns continue until Benet Hall, at the end of the road (3.46km).

Notes: The bird watchers circuit, 3.2km (2mi), begins at the end of Mount St. Benedict's private road (after Benet Hall) and continues west northwest for a few paces and then sharply turns north, climbing through woodland, retracing the nascent route towards the earlier monastery ruins, at 294m, on Mount Tabor (671m). After exiting the woodland it proceeds along a ridge then follows the east (right) prong at a fork in the trail (the left prong goes to Mt. Tabor). From that point the trail descends, with a few switchbacks and skirting a spur on its right, and the direction is generally south. After the southerly direction is reaffirmed, it continues until some stairs on the right that ascend to Benet Hall.

Information about the various sites, in the vicinity, to observe birds can be obtained at Pax Guest House, located at the monastery. Birding tours and nature walks, of the surrounding trails, also, can be arranged there.

Abbey: 662-2259, 662-5286

Email: [email protected]

Pax Guest House: 662-4084

Email: [email protected]

Mountain

Gardens, Secondary Forest, & Lower Montane Forest

  • Black-throated Mango,
  • Blue-chinned Sapphire,
  • Copper-rumped Hummingbird,
  • Green Hermit,
  • Ruby-Topaz,
  • Tufted Coquette, and
  • White-chested Emerald
  • Other Birds
  • Gray Hawk,
  • Black Vulture,
  • Magnificent Frigatebird,
  • Peregrine Falcon,
  • Turkey Vulture,
  • White Hawk,
  • White-shouldered Tanager,
  • Yellow-headed Caracara, and
  • Zone-tailed Hawk.

Bush Bush Wildlife Sanctuary
(Ramsar Site)

Nariva Swamp (East Coast)

GPS: 10.41611,-61.06633

Directions: From Sangre Grande, continue southeast on Eastern Main Road to Manzanilla-Mayaro Road (11.6km); continue south on Manzanilla-Mayaro Road (11.5km) till a lengthy concrete bridge that crosses the Nariva River (the Nariva River parallels the Manzanilla-Mayaro Road on the right); after crossing the bridge proceed another 1.2km to a smaller bridge where there is a Nariva Swamp sign and a small house just beyond. From here a 10-minute boat ride to the sanctuary can be arranged.

At the sanctuary there is a boat-landing on its north eastern end, a forestry house, and several kilometres of trails. For the most part the trails run along the spine of the peninsula from north-northeast to south-southeast. Also, there are fire traces, sometimes very faint, at the dry wet boundary on the eastern edge that are sometimes passable.

An entry permit is necessary for access. Contact the Wildlife Section of the Min. of Agriculture or a tour operator.

Forestry Division: 225-3837 (Wildlife), 227-3792 (National Parks)

TTITOA: 633 1403, 782 1791(c)

Email: [email protected]

Wetland

Marsh, Mangrove, & Palm Forest

  • Other Birds
  • Anhinga,
  • Aplomado Falcon,
  • Azure Gallinule,
  • Barn Owl,
  • Blue Heron,
  • Blue-and-Yellow Macaw,
  • Cattle Egret,
  • Glossy Ibis,
  • Great Egret,
  • Jabiru Stork,
  • Limpkin,
  • Red-billed Whistling Duck,
  • Savanna Hawk,
  • Snowy Egret,
  • Tropical Screech Owl,
  • Wattled Jacana, and
  • Yellow-headed Caracara.

Yerettê

Valley View, Maracas Valley, St. Joseph

GPS: 10.685600,-61.410122

Notes: Valley View is on the eastern foothills of the Maracas Valley, in the Northern Range, 4.11km (2.56mi), north, on the left, off the Maracas Royal Road.

Yerettê has an art gallery on site.

A complimentary morning or afternoon photo slide show is an option.

Visits by appointment only. Tel: 663-2623, 373-1379, or 397-3724.

foothill, Valley

Garden

  • Amethyst Woodstar,
  • Blue-chinned Sapphire,
  • Blue-tailed Emerald,
  • Brown Violetear,
  • Copper-rumped Hummingbird,
  • Long-billed Starthroat,
  • Ruby Topaz,
  • Rufous-shafted Woodstar,
  • Tufted Coquette, and
  • White-chested Emerald.

The twin island Republic of Trinidad and Tobago is the southernmost of the Caribbean's archipelagic island chain. It is merely 11km (6.8mi) off the northeast coast of Venezuela. Direct access, by air, to the Republic is possible from North America, South America, Central America, Europe, and other Caribbean islands. The main points of entry are Piarco International Airport, Piarco, Trinidad and Arthur Napoleon Raymond Robinson International Airport, Crown Point, Tobago.

Rectangular, Trinidad is 4,768 sq. km (1,841 sq. mi), roughly 80km (50mi) by 59km (37mi) and has three mountain ranges, running east to west. Mountainous and cigar-shaped Tobago is 298 sq. km. (115 sq. mi), 41km (25.5mi) by 12km (7.5mi). Trinidad is 30km (19mi) to the southwest of Tobago. Travel to and fro between any birding site and any population centre on either island can be accomplished in less than half a day. However, a full day must be reserved for travel—either by aircraft or ferry—between the islands of Trinidad and Tobago.

The Republic's bird species, mainly, are a microcosm—481 species, including migratory species, 4 introduced species, almost two dozen hummingbird species, and two endemics—of South America due to the continent's proximity and intertwined natural history.

The island of Trinidad is credited with 459 bird species. Amongst them the Trinidad piping-guan is endemic to the island of Trinidad whilst the Trinidad motmot is endemic to the region, i.e., Trinidad and Tobago. The island of Trinidad claims 21 species of hummingbirds one-third of them—rufous-breasted hermit, black-throated mango, ruby-topaz hummingbird, copper-rumped hummingbird, white-necked jacobin, blue-chinned sapphire, and green-throated carib—it shares with Tobago.



Trinidad & Tobago Bird Photography Workshop 2016









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