Rufous Hummingbird

Rufous Hummingbird (Selasphorus rufus)

Length: 7–9cm (2.8–3.5")
Weight: 2–5g (0.071–0.176oz)
Description: a small hummingbird with a straight, long and slim bill; male (♂): rufous upperparts (crown, nape, back, and rump), some specimen interspersed with green on the crown and back; iridescent orange-red gorget; white on chest encroaching onto a rufous abdomen; rufous flanks; and rufous rump and tail; female (♂): somewhat larger than the male; green upperparts; frequently with orange splotch on the throat; white underparts; washed-rufous flanks; green tail with rufous base and white tips; immature: like adult female with white underparts, irregularly, with dark streaks on throat; and washed-rufous flanks; immature male (♂): central retrices like adult male.
Habitat: open areas, parks, gardens, forest, and shrub land.
Range: Grand Bahama (The Bahamas), Canada, Mexico, and Turks and Caicos Islands (UK), and USA; vagrant on St Pierre and Miquelon (France).

Note: The rufous hummingbird is accidental to The Bahamas even reaching further east to the Turk and Caicos Islands. The traditional migratory pattern for the rufous hummingbird is to spend winter months in Mexico; in spring to advance north along the Pacific Coast to Washington, British Columbia, and as far as southeast Alaska; in late summer and fall to return south along the Rockies completing the circuit in Mexico. The bird travels a distance of over 2,000 miles from its closest summer haunts to Mexico and as much as 3,900 miles from the furthest. In recent times there have been increased incidents of winter migration to Florida, Gulf States and to the West Indies. Bird enthusiast have suggested that milder climate in the lower-states—due to climate change—increased food sources from gardens and feeders, and the lack of competition have encouraged the new trend. The rufous hummingbird is a member of the "bees" clade. A distant and cursory observation of juvenile and female rufous hummingbirds may lead to their misidentification as Allen's Hummingbird, also a member of the "bees".